The Spencer Foundation invests in education research for the purpose of making education better.
We believe that cultivating knowledge and new ideas about education will ultimately improve students’ lives and enrich society. The Foundation pursues its mission by awarding research grants and fellowships and by strengthening the connections among education research, policy and practice through its communications and networking activities.
Steve Raudenbush's brief considering the problem of using value-added scores to compare teachers who work in different schools. This paper was produced as part of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Carnegie Knowledge Network project.